Invalid Clicks can arise from numerous situations based on internal quality guidelines of either or both the Publisher or Publisher’s Agent. Additionally, the Advertiser or Advertiser’s Agent can make assessments of Click validity and bring these assessments to the attention of the Publisher or Publisher’s Agent. In general, Click activity determined to be invalid should be removed from counts to arrive at valid click activity. Invalid Clicks arising from suspected “click fraud” are a sub-component of Invalid Clicks. (See Click Fraud).