Glossary

A/B Split
Refers to a test situation in which a list is split into two halves with every other name being sent one specific creative, and vice versa. (See also Nth name).
Abandonment
When a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it, prior to completing the transaction.
Above The Fold
The part of an Email message or Webpage that is visible without scrolling. Material in this area is considered more valuable because the reader sees it first. Also refers to a printing term for the top half of a newspaper above the fold. Unlike a newspaper, Email and Webpage fold locations aren’t predictable. Your fold may be affected by the users’ preview pane, monitor-size, monitor resolution, any headers placed by Email programs such as Hotmail, etc.
Acquisition Cost
In Email marketing, the cost to generate one lead, newsletter subscriber or customer in an individual Email campaign; typically, the total campaign expense divided by the number of leads, subscribers or customers it produced.
Ad Activity
This is an alternative to the click-through rate as a unit to measure the success of an Online ad campaign. Not every click in a Rich Media unit produces a click-through. When a viewer clicks on a Rich Media unit for example, a number of outcomes are possible, including expanding the unit, playing a Video or otherwise interacting with the unit. The call-to-action for a viewer to click-through competes with all other possible forms of interaction within the unit.
Ad Copy
The actual text of an advertisement that explains what product or service is being advertised (a media neutral term).
Ad Exchange
A virtual marketplace where participating suppliers auction their impressions to eligible buyers. The ad exchange announces each impressions, in real time, and asks buyers if they are interested to buy said impression and at which price.
Ad Impression
1) An ad which is served to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads; 2) a measurement of responses by an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user’s browser — therefore closest to the actual opportunity to see by the user. Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user – a) server-initiated and b) client-initiated.  Server-initiated ad counting uses the Online Publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content.  Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser to perform these activities. (See www.iab.net for details concerning ad campaign, broadband Video and Rich Media measurement guidelines).
Ad Interaction
A popular measure of Rich Media campaign performance. The metric places value on interactions within a unit, even if they do not result in a click-through. Interactions are captured when the user does one or more of the following: Clicks an Exit link, Makes the ad display in Full Screen mode, Mouses over the ad. (See Ad Activity).
Ad Interaction Rate
The ratio of Rich Media ad interactions to the number of Rich Media ad impressions displayed.  
Ad Interaction Time
The average amount of time, in seconds, that users interact with a Rich Media ad. Multiple interactions with an ad during a single ad view are aggregated.
Ad Request
The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action, as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.
Ad Server
Technology that stores display advertisements, delivers them to website visitors in a way that would maximize the Advertiser’s (or Publisher’s) revenue, monitor campaigns and create reports.
Ad Serving
The delivery of ads by a server to an end user’s computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web Publisher, or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.
Ad Stream
The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).  
Ad Tag (Publisher)
A script calling an ad from an ad server via an URL. The tag, for organization and accuracy purpose, should contain, at the very least, the following information: page content theme, ad size which should be displayed in this ad slot and a cache busting random number to minimize impression discrepancy.
Ad Verification
A service that confirms if an ad ran only where it was intended to by the Advertiser. Often used to ensure brand safety, so that an ad does not appear in an inappropriate place or site. Vendors include AdSafe, AdXpose, Evidon, and DoubleVerify.
Advertising Network (Ad Network)
An Online aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks act as sales representatives for the Websites within their networks, whereby ads are bought centrally by media buyers and displayed on multiple Websites that contract with individual Ad Networks, for a share of revenue generated by ads served on their site.
Affiliate Marketing
An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.  
Affirmative Consent
An active request by an Online viewer or subscriber to receive advertising or promotional information, newsletters, etc. Generally affirmative consent does not included the following — failing to uncheck a pre-checked box on a Web form, entering a business relationship with an organization without being asked for separate permission to be sent specific types of Email, in other words lack of an ‘opt-out’ mechanism.  
Agency Trading Desk (ATD)
A department or arm of an Agency that oversees programmatic buying. Many Agency holding companies have trading desks.
Alert
Email message that notifies subscribers of an event or special price.
Algorithm
The programming technology that a Search engine uses to deliver results to a query. Search engines may utilize several algorithms in tandem to deliver a page of Search results or keyword-targeted ads.
Alternate Text
A word or phrase that is displayed when a user has image loading disabled in their browser or when a user abandons a page by hitting “stop” in their browser, prior to the transfer of all images.  Also appears as “balloon text” when a user lets their mouse rest over an image.
Analytics
A broad term referring to data analysis; used in PPC (Pay-Per-Click) Online advertising for example, to help determine the quality and success rates of specific pay per click advertising campaigns.
Anchor Text
The clickable text part of a hyperlink. The text usually gives visitors or Search engines important information on what the page being linked to is about.
Animated GIF
An animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images, displayed one after another, that give the appearance of movement.
Animation
A programmatically generated display of sequential images, creating the illusion that objects in the image are moving. Not digital Video, as it relates to this document (see below for digital Video).
Anonymizer
An intermediary which prevents Websites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.
API
An API (Application Programming Interface) allows a software application to interact with the operating system of another software application.
App
Short for “application.” In social terms, an app may be a mobile or web-based app that enables social functions, e.g. Facebook’s mobile app for iPhone.
Attachment
A text, Video, graphic, PDF or sound file that accompanies an Email message but is not included in the message itself. Attachments are not an ideal way to send Email newsletters, because many ISPs, Email clients and individual Email recipients do not allow attachments, since hackers can use them to deliver viruses and other malicious code.
Attribute
A single piece of information known about a user and stored in a behavioral profile which may be used to match ad content to users. Attributes consist of demographic information (age, gender, geographical location), segment or cluster information (auto enthusiast), and retargeting information (visited Site X two days ago).
Attribution Modelling
A mathematical process for linking marketing activities to outcomes such as online or offline product purchases. Attribution modeling typically analyzes the degree to which different blends of media exposure, across different channels, generate different bottom-line results in order to establish causality and properly credit each media channel for its impact on the final outcome. For example, users exposed to $100K of display media only may generate 1,000 conversions that can be directly attributed to the display campaign, but also generate a measurable lift in searches and in offline sales that lead to further impact.
Audience Activity
Audience activity generally consists of counts of Internet users accessing content and/or advertising through one or more Internet applications such as a browser or a browser equivalent, filtered to remove suspected non-human activity.
Audio
The audible file that accompanies ads. Advertising audio should never play without user-initiation.
Audit
Third party validation by qualified auditing firms of server log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity Audits validate measurement counts, including the fairness by which a company’s adserving statistics are presented.  Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement. The latter can include testing an organization’s technology, process, and data as it relates to the underlying ad serving system.
Authentication
An automated process that verifies an Email sender’s identity.
Auto Bidding
The opposite of Fixed Bidding in paid Search campaigns. A type of keyword bidding in which an Advertiser sets a maximum bid for a specific keyword, but may pay less for each clickthrough of that keyword. For example, if Advertiser A bid $0.10 on a keyword, but the next highest bid (Advertiser B) on that keyword is $0.05, then Advertiser A will pay only $0.06 for each clickthrough. However, if Advertiser B changes his/her bid from $0.05 to $0.09, then Advertiser A will pay the full $0.10 (Advertiser A’s maximum bid) for each clickthrough.
Autoresponder
Automated Email message-sending capability, such as a welcome message sent to all new subscribers the minute they join a list. May be triggered by joins, unsubscribes, or even all Email sent to a particular mailbox. May be more than a single message:  can be a series of date or event-triggered Emails.
Backbone
A central network connecting other networks together.
Bandwidth
1) the transmission rate of a communications line or system, expressed either as cycles per second/hertz for analog lines, or as bits (bps) or kilobits per second (Kbps) for digital systems; 2) line speed; 3) the amount of information that can be transmitted over communications lines at one time.
Bandwidth Competition
A bottleneck, however brief, when two or more files are simultaneously transmitted over a single line. Unless the system is able to prioritize among the files, the effect is to slow delivery of each.
Banner
Also known as “Display ads”, banner advertisements are a form of graphical ads embedded into a Webpage, typically including a combination of static/animated images, text and/or Video, designed to convey a marketing message and/or cause the user to take an action. Banner dimensions are typically defined by width and height, represented in pixels.
Bayesian Filter
An anti-spam program that evaluates header and content of incoming Email messages to determine the probability that it is spam. Bayesian filters assign point values to items that appear frequently in spam, such as the words “money-back guarantee” or “free.” A message that accumulated too many points is either rejected as probable spam or delivered to a junk-mail folder. Also referred to as content-based filter.
Behavioral Targeting (Interest-based Advertising)
A technique used by Publishers and Advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their Online ad campaigns. Behavioral targeting consists of displaying ads to users based on their past browsing behavior within an ad network. Information related to the user’s habits is collected from a cookie dropped by and only accessible by the respective ad network. From the browsing habits of a user, personal content preference profiles can be built ready to be targeted not only on a specific interest based site, but across a whole ad network.  
Bid (Keyword Bid)
A paid Search campaign term meaning the maximum amount of money that an Advertiser is willing to pay each time a Web searcher clicks on an ad and visits their Website.
Billboard
An IAB Rising Stars ad unit template designed with options for rich interactivity to display prominently inline with Publishers’ Webpage content, but with a close button that collapses the ad completely if a user isn’t interested in the content displayed in the ad unit. See: http://www.iab.net/risingstars
Blacklist
A list developed by anyone receiving Email, or processing Email on its way to the recipient, or interested third-parties, that includes domains or IP addresses of any mailers suspected of sending spam. Many companies use blacklists to reject inbound Email, either at the server level or before it reaches the recipient’s In-Box.
Block
A refusal by an ISP or mail server to forward your Email message to the recipient. Many ISPs block Email from IP addresses or domains that have been reported to send spam or viruses or have content that violates Email policy or spam filters.
Blog
A Blog, short for WeBlog, is a type of Website used by individuals, groups or business entities to publish opinions and commentary on various topics. Content can be focused on very niche topics or can cover current events, popular themes, or even take the shape of a personal diary. Blog posts are listed in reverse chronological order and also allow for comments by readers. Posts can be in the form of text, image, Video, or Rich Media formats.
Blog Roll
A list of Blogs on a Blog (usually placed in the sidebar of a Blog page) that reads as a series of recommendations by the writer of other Blogs.
Blogger
Name for the person who is responsible for writing a blog.
Bot
Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like Search engines to discover Websites for indexing. Short for robot.
Bounce
This refers to what happens when Emails are returned to the mail server as undeliverable. A message that doesn’t get delivered promptly is said to have bounced. Emails can bounce for more than 30 reasons: the Email address is incorrect or has been closed; the recipient’s mailbox is full, the mail server is down, or the system detects spam or offensive content. See hard bounce and soft bounce.
Bounce Handling
The process of dealing with the Email that has bounced. Bounce handling is important for list maintenance, list integrity and delivery.  
Bounce Message
Message sent back to an Email sender reporting the Email could not be delivered and why. Note: Not all bounced Emails result in messages being sent back to the sender. Not all bounce messages are clear or accurate about the reason an Email was bounced.
Bounce Rate
Also known as return rate. Number of hard/soft bounces divided by the number of Emails sent. This is an inexact number because some systems do not report back to the sender clearly or accurately.
Brand Safety
Contextual technology aimed at ensuring advertisement does not display on webpages where its appearance might negatively impact the Advertiser’s brand.
Broadband
An Internet connection that delivers a relatively high bit rate–any bit rate at or above 100 Kbps. Cable modems, DSL and ISDN all offer broadband connections.
Broadcast
The process of sending the same Email message to multiple recipients.
Browser
A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web. Browsers can be either text-based or graphical.
Bulk Folder
Also known as junk folder. Where many Email clients send messages that appear to be from spammers or contain spam or are from any sender who’s not in the recipient’s address book or contact list.  Recipients are generally able to override the system’s settings and direct that Email from a suspect sender be sent directly to the inbox. Alternatively one can designate individual messages in the bulk folder as “Not Spam” or “Not Junk” or “Safe Sender.”.
Bulk Upload
A tool that some PPC (Pay-Per-Click) Search engines offer that allows Advertisers to upload a large number of keywords into their account. In some cases, Advertisers are able to upload complete PPC campaigns, or parts of complete campaigns.
Button
Clickable graphic (potentially an advertisement), that contains certain functionality, such as taking one to another site or executing a program.
Byte
A unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, a byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the basic addressable element in many computer architectures.
Cache
Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested Online content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Cache can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache. Today, Web browsers cause virtually all data viewed to be cached on a user’s computer.
Cache Busting
The process by which sites or servers serve content or HTML in such a manner as to minimize or prevent browsers or proxies from serving content from their cache. This forces the user or proxy to fetch a fresh copy for each request. Among other reasons, cache busting is used to provide a more accurate count of the number of requests from users.
Cached Ad Impressions
The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.
Call To Action
Information which tells the user what action to take on an Online ad.
Campaign
The advertising period in which a given marketing strategy is to be executed.
Capping
Is an act to voluntarily prevent ads from repeatedly displaying. Often referred as frequency capping, one popular way of capping is specifying a maximum of x amount of impressions per “x” amount of hours.
Catch-all
An Email server function that forwards all questionable Email to a single mailbox. The catch-all should be monitored regularly to find misdirected questions, unsubscribes or other genuine live Email.
Catfish
An ad that expands to the width of a Publisher’s Website with the height of 90 pixels. It sticks to the bottom of the page and does not expand. See Rising Stars Slider for an expandable version of this type of ad.
Cell
Aka Test cell or version. A segment of your Email deployment list that receives different message treatment, specifically to see how it responds versus the control (regular treatment). (See A/B split)
Census Based Measurement
Web or Online ad traffic counts derived from cookied browsers by Website servers and ad servers. The measurement organization may utilize algorithms and other data adjustment procedures such as Online or offline studies, to calculate Unique Browsers and Unique Devices. This is distinct from panel-based measurement. (See also Syndicated measurement organization).
Challenge-response System
An Email anti-spam program that requires a human being on the sender’s end to respond to an Emailed ‘challenge’ message before their messages can be delivered to recipients. Senders who answer the challenge successfully are added to an authorization list. Bulk Emailers can work with challenge-response in this manner.
Chat
Online interactive communication between two or more people on the Web. One can “talk” in real time with other people in a chat room, but the words are typed instead of spoken.
Churn
How many subscribers leave/opt out of an Email mailing list (or how many Email addresses go bad) over a certain length of time, usually expressed as a percentage of the whole list.
Click Fraud
Invalid clicks arising from suspected “click fraud” originate from a user, program or automated agent (e.g., Internet robot or spider) that accesses a URL for the purpose of manipulating click measurement activity or click-based advertising payments, with no intention of legitimately browsing site content, making a purchase or performing any other type of legitimate conversion action. Suspected click fraud can include invalid ad impression activity. Invalid Suspected click fraud should be filtered from legitimate, user-originating click activity through click-control analyses. (See Invalid Clicks).
Click-stream
1) The electronic path an Online user takes while navigating from page to page within a Website or from site to site, and; 2) a comprehensive body of data describing the sequence of activity between a user’s browser and any other Internet resource, such as a Website or third party ad server.
Click-through
The action of following a hyperlink (or hotlink) within an advertisement or editorial content to another Website or another page or frame within the Website. Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a ‘302 redirect’ at the ad server and robotic activity should be filtered out. (See Clicks, Invalid Clicks, Click Fraud).
Click-through Rate (CTR)
The rate (expressed in a percentage) at which users click on an ad. This is calculated by dividing the total number of clicks by the total number of ad impressions. For example, if an ad is displayed 100 times and is clicked on 2 times, that ad has a click-through rate of 2% (2/100).
Click-through Tracking
When a hyperlink (hotlink) is included in an Email, a click-through occurs when a recipient clicks on the link. Click-through tracking refers to the data collected about each click-through link, such as how many people clicked it, how many clicks resulted in desired actions such as sales, forwards or subscriptions.
Click-within
Click-withins are ads that allow the user to “drill down” while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.
Clicks
1) Metric which measures the reaction of an Online user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs; in-unit clicks; and mouse-overs; 2) the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server; 3) the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the Advertiser’s intended Website or another page or frame within the Website; 4) metric which measures the reaction of a user to hot-linked editorial content. (See www.iab.net for Ad Campaign Measurement Guidelines.  See also ad click, click-through and mouse-over).
ClickTAG
The ClickTAG is the tracking code assigned by the Online ad serving network to an individual ad. The ClickTAG allows the network to register where the ad was displayed when it was clicked on. This click-through data is reported to the ad servers so Advertisers may determine the effectiveness of their campaign.
Close X
A creative control that enables a user to close an ad (remove it from view), or to reduce an expanded panel back to its original size.
Co-registration
Arrangement in which companies collecting registration information from users (Email sign-up forms, shopping checkout process, etc.) include a separate box for users to check if they would also like to be added to a specific third-party list.
Collapse
An event where the expanded panel of an expandable ad reduces to its original size, or disappears completely.
Comment
A message left by a user on a Publisher’s blog, Facebook page, or other social platform.
Commercial Email
Email whose purpose, as a whole or in part, is to sell or advertise a product or service or to persuade users to perform an act, such as to purchase a product or click to a Website, whose contents are designed to sell, advertise or promote.
Community Manager
A job role where the employee engages with users of an online community, such as a forum, Facebook fan page, or comments on a blog. The Community Manager usually answers questions, promotes the community, and may also perform moderation duties.
Confirmation
An acknowledgment of an Online subscription or information request. “Confirmation” can be either a company statement that the Email address was successfully placed on a list, or a subscriber’s agreement that the subscribe request was genuine and not faked or automatically generated by a third party.
Content
All the material in an Email message (or a Webpage) except for the codes showing the delivery route and return-path information. Includes all words, images and links.
Content Integration
Advertising woven into Online editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. Also known as “Web advertorial”.
Content Network
A group of Websites that agree to show ads on their sites, collectively served by a 3rd party ad network, in exchange for a share of the revenue generated by those ads.
Contextual Advertising
Advertising that is targeted to a non-Search Webpage based on the page’s content, keywords, or category. Ads in most content networks can be targeted in this manner, whereby ads are matched to keywords extracted from the content. For example on a Webpage about  dog training, the automated ad serving system may display ads for dog collars, dog leashes and pet food. Contextual advertising scans the text of a website for keywords and targets ads based on those keywords. These ads can be text or images. Advertisers can leverage existing keyboard-based paid Search campaigns to access a larger audience.
Contextual Data
Data related to the content and context of the specific webpage where advertisement is run.
Controls
Active elements of an ad that enable a user to control the advertising experience. Examples of common controls include the “Close X” button in an expandable ad or the Play/Pause/Mute buttons in a Video player.
Conversion
When a visitor clicks to a Website through an Online ad, or as the recipient of an Email campaign, and performs a desired action. A conversion could be a monetary transaction, such as a purchase made after clicking a link within the Website. It could also include a voluntary act such as registering at a Website, downloading a white paper, signing up for a Web seminar or opting in to an Email newsletter.
Conversion Rate
The number of visitors expressed as a percentage, who “convert” after visiting a site through an ad or a commercial Email.  The definition of conversion varies from site to site according to the Advertiser’s goals. If an ad achieves 50 click-throughs and 4 of the 50 people who clicked on the ad proceed to convert, the conversion rate = 8% (4/50 * 100). Higher conversion rates generally translate into more successful Pay Per Click advertising campaigns.
Cookie
A very small text file (i.e., program code) that is stored on a user’s browser for the purpose of uniquely identifying that browser during audience activity and for authenticating, tracking and maintaining specific information about users. First-party cookies are those left on a computer by a Website that has been visited, while third-party cookies are those left by a domain different than the site being visited, such as an advertising server that has just delivered an ad to a computer, or certain third-party tools used to measure site traffic. Cookies are typically set to expire. There are two types of cookies: persistent cookies and session cookies. Session cookies are temporary and are erased when the browser exits.  Persistent cookies remain on the user’s hard drive until the user erases them or until they expire.
Cookie Buster
Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.
Cookie Caching
A process of collecting cookies of various users which can be brought on an ad exchange.
Cookie Deletion
The degree to which users clear cookies from their computers, thereby causing servers to deposit new cookies and potentially leading to overstated estimates of unique users when relying on cookie-based server data.
Cookie, First-party
A cookie placed on a website by the owner, such as those on a bank site or other site (Netflix, Amazon) so they recognize users when users return to their sites.
Cookie, Third-party
A cookie placed on a website by a third-party, such as an ad server or data provider. Information from these cookies is collected and can be used to place you in one or more demographic groups, based on your online activity. These cookies can be used to target advertising and manage campaign aspects.
CPA (Cost-Per-Action)
A performance-based advertising model where payment is dependent upon an action that a user performs as a result of the ad. The action could be making a purchase, signing up for a newsletter, or asking for a follow-up call. An Advertiser pays a set fee to the Publisher based on the number of visitors who take action. Many affiliate programs use the CPA model.
CPC (Cost-Per-Click)
(Also called Pay Per Click or PPC). Cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received. A performance-based advertising model where the Advertiser pays a set fee for every click on an ad. The majority of text ads sold by Search engines are billed under the CPC model. (See Pay Per Click).
CPL (Cost-Per-Lead)
A performance-based advertising model where the cost of advertising is determined based on the number of database files (leads) received.
CPM (Cost-Per-Thousand)
An ad model that charges Advertisers every time an ad is displayed to a user, whether the user clicks on the ad or not. The fee is based on every 1,000 ad impressions (“M” is the Roman numeral for 1,000). Most Display ads, such as banners ads, are sold by CPM.
CPO (Cost-Per-Order)
A performance-based advertising model where the cost of advertising is based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost-Per-Transaction.
CPU
CPU is an acronym for Central Processing Unit, the key component of a computer system, which contains the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute program instructions.
CPU Spike
A brief jump in central processing power, sustained for no more than X seconds, experienced while “heavy” content is loaded/executed.
CPU Usage %
A guideline for the amount of central processing power used to display advertising content compared to what’s available on an individual’s computer. CPU usage percentage can be measured directly, during the execution of an Online ad. In addition to file size, the complexity of drawings, gradients, slow moving animations and detailed moving elements can affect the number of calculations the CPU must make for each frame.
Crawler
A software program which visits virtually all pages of the Web to create indexes for Search engines. Crawlers ‘read’ text files than graphic files. (See also spider and bot).
Creative
An advertising unit created by an ad designer, in accordance with Publisher specifications and guidelines, for the purpose of communicating a marketing message to that Publisher’s audience. One creative may consist of multiple files in various formats, such as standard images, animation, Video, execution files (.html, .js, etc.), and other files that work together for an interactive experience.
Creative Dimensions
Measured in pixels, the width and height of an ad unit (WxH). The width is always the first dimension listed, followed by the height dimension (i.e. an ad that is 350×200 is 350 pixels wide by 200 pixels high).
CRM
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broad term that consists of the processes a company uses to track and organize its contacts with current and prospective customers either by phone, fax, mail and e-mail. CRM software is used to support these processes; information about customers and customer interactions can be entered, stored and accessed by employees in different company departments. Typical CRM goals are to improve services provided to customers by measuring the performance of the business against internal benchmarks, and to use customer contact information for targeted marketing.
CTR
See Click-through rate.
Cursor
The graphical representation of a “pointer” on a user screen, controlled by the user’s interaction with controlling devices such as a mouse, mouse pad, stylus or other input hardware.
Data Management Platform (DMP)
A centralized system for gathering first-party data, integrating with third-party data, and applying this data to one’s advertising strategy. Advanced DMPs offer users the ability to create custom segments, forecast segment volumes, sync segments with other sources, overlay advanced analytics, and are often integrated with or part of DSP platforms.
Dedicated Server
A dedicated server is a type of Internet hosting solely for use by a single customer, account or domain name, where the client leases an entire server; i.e. a computer that only runs one type of server software, and is usually constructed according to the user’s specifications. Dedicated servers are appropriate for users that require lots of disk space or data transfer, as well as sites that are database intensive or have specific software requirements. Example: An Email server used by only one sender. Email usually goes out faster, and the server is more secure.
Deduplication (deduping)
The process of removing identical entries from two or more data sets such as mailing lists. AKA merge/purge.
Delivered Email
Number of Emails sent minus the number of bounces and filtered messages. A highly inexact number because not all receiving ISPs report accurately on which Email didn’t go through and why not.
Delivery Tracking
The process of measuring Email delivery rates by format, ISP or other factors and delivery failures (bounces, invalid address, server and other errors).
Demand Side Platform (DSP)
A DSP is a technology platform through which buyers (Advertisers or Agencies) can plan, target, execute, optimize, and analyze digital media buying programs across 100% of the media plan. Through a DSP, the buyer can set targeting criteria, pricing, frequency, and other criteria governing the purchase of digital ad units. Advanced DSPs will provide additional capabilities to the buyer, including integration of various online and offline data sources, the ability to provision direct media buys (as opposed to just RTB), advanced optimization and decisioning capabilities, and creative tools.
Deploy
The act of sending the Email campaign after testing.
Digest
A shortened version of an Email newsletter which replaces full-length articles with clickable links to the full article at a Website, often with a brief summary of the contents.
Directory
Specializes in linking to other Websites and categorizing those links. A Web Directory is not a Search engine, and does not display lists of Webpages based on keywords; instead, it lists Websites by category and subcategory. The categorization is usually based on the whole Website rather than one page or a set of keywords, and sites are often limited to inclusion in only a few categories. Web directories often allow site owners to directly submit their site for inclusion, and have editors review submissions for fitness.
Discrepancy
This refers to the difference in recorded impressions between ad serving platforms which are involved in the process of publishing Online ads. It can be the basis for disputes between Publishers and ad serving agencies, in which Publisher’s own server metrics tend to be higher. The discrepancy tolerance threshold is 10%. Factors such as different impression calculation methods influence the level of reported discrepancy. 
Display Advertising
A form of Online advertising where an Advertiser‘s message is shown on a destination Webpage in a graphical format.
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Every domain name consists of one top or high-level and one or more lower-level designators. Top-level domains (TLDs) are either generic or geographic. Generic top-level domains include .com (commercial), .net (network), .edu (educational), .org (organizational, public or non-commercial), .gov (governmental), .mil (military); .biz (business), .info (informational),.name (personal), .pro (professional), .aero (air transport and civil aviation), .coop (business cooperatives such as credit unions) and .museum. Geographic domains designate countries of origin, such as .ca (Canada), .us (United States),.fr (France), .uk (United Kingdom), etc.
Double Opt-in
A process that requires new list or survey panel joiners to take an action (such as clicking on an Email or ad embedded link to a personal confirmation page) in order to confirm that they do want to be on the list or panel. Sometimes interpreted incorrectly by some Email broadcast vendors to mean a new subscriber who does not opt-out of or bounce a welcome message.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A high-speed dedicated digital circuit from a given location to the telephone company’s central office, using normal copper telephone lines. DSL provides a separate channel for voice and fax, which means that phone calls and faxes can be carried at the same time high-speed data is flowing across the line. DSL is a general term that includes several variations: ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), ranging up to 1.5 Mbps; HDSL (High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line), 1.5 Mbps; SDSL (Single-line Digital Subscriber Line), 1.5 Mbps; VDSL (Very high-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line), ranging up to 2.3 Mbps; and RDSL (Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line), various speeds.
Dynamic Ad Insertion
The process by which an Online ad is inserted into a Webpage in response to a user’s request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a Webpage based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.
Dynamic Content
Email-newsletter content that changes from one recipient to the next according to a set of predetermined rules or variables, usually according to preferences the user sets when opting in to messages from a sender. Dynamic content can reflect past purchases, current interests or where the recipient lives.
Dynamic CPM (dCPM)
The approach to winning ad traffic by increasing CPM bid by the necessary minimum in real time to outbid competition.
Dynamic Pricing
The purchase price for an ad impression that is determined via a real-time auction rather than a predetermined fixed rate.
E-Commerce
The process of conducting commercial transactions on the Internet, consisting of buying and selling products or services and the transfer of funds in payment thereof, through digital communications.
E-mail Bounce
An e-mail that cannot be delivered to the mailbox provider and is sent back to the e-mail Service Provider that deployed it. A bounce is classified as either hard or soft. Hard bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a permanent reason, such as a non-existent address. Soft bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a temporary issue, such as a full inbox or an unavailable ISP server.
Editorial Review
A process in which Online Advertiser listings are checked to ensure relevancy. Not all PPC Search Engines review listings.
Email Client
The software that recipients use to read Email, such as Outlook Express or Lotus Notes.
Email Domain
The portion of the Email address to the right of the @ sign.
Email Filter
A software tool that categorizes, sorts or blocks incoming Email, based either on the sender, the Email header or message content. Filters may be applied at the recipient’s level, at the Email client, the ISP or a combination.
Email Friendly Name
Aka Display Name, From name. The portion of the Email address that is displayed in most, though not all, Email readers in place of, or in addition to, the Email address.
Email Harvesting
Automated process in which a robot program searches Webpages or other Internet destinations for Email addresses. The program collects the addresses into a database, which frequently gets resold to spammers or unethical bulk mailers.
Email Newsletter
Content distributed to subscribers by Email, on a regular schedule. Content is seen as valued editorial in and of itself rather than primarily a commercial message with a sales offer. (See ezine).
Email Prefix
The portion of the Email address to the left of the @ sign.
Email Vendor
Another name for an Email broadcast service provider, a company that deploys bulk (volume) Email on behalf of its clients. Also Email service provider (ESP).
Embedding
Posting photos or video content within social media that is hosted by another network, i.e. YouTube.
Encryption
The scrambling of digital information so that it is unreadable without the use of digital keys.
Engagement
A desired interaction by a user to a brand. This could be “likes” on a Facebook fan page, retweets of a tweet sent by a brand, comments on a blog, or time spent on a social game.
Event Triggered Email
Pre-programmed messages sent automatically based on an event such as a date or anniversary.
Expandable Ads & Banners
Rich Media ads that can be enlarged to dimensions beyond the initial dimensions of the placement they fill on the Webpage. The user initiates expanding events, sometimes after the ad initially expands briefly on its own to catch the user’s attention. (See the ad guidelines).
Expandable Dimensions
The secondary dimension of an expanding ad unit, after the ad is expanded( E.g. 728×360). Initial dimensions are fit to the dimension of the placement (E.g. 728 x 90). Then, either by auto-play or by user interaction, the ad unit expands to its secondary dimension.
Eyeballs
Colloquial reference to the number of people who view, or “lay their eyes on,” a certain Online advertisement.
Ezine
An Online magazine shares some features with a Blog and also with Online newspapers, but can usually be distinguished by its approach to editorial control.
False Positive
A legitimate Email message mistakenly rejected or filtered as spam, either by an ISP or a recipient’s anti-spam program. The more stringent is an anti-spam program, the higher the false-positive rate. 
Filmstrip
An IAB Rising Stars ad unit template that is 350×3000 pixels, divided into five 350×600 pixel segments that scroll by user interaction though a 350×600 pixel placement “window.” See: http://www.iab.net/risingstars
First Look
“First look” is a tactic widely offered by sellers who offer prioritized access to select Advertisers within an open market environment. Instead of the winning impression going to the highest bid, “first look” affords first right of refusal for an impression within an exchange based on a pre-negotiated floor or fixed price. If the buyer bids, they are guaranteed to win the impression. This privilege is typically granted in return for a commitment.
Fixed Bidding
The opposite of Auto Bidding. A type of keyword bidding in paid Search campaigns, payment exactly matches the original bid for each click-through. For example, if you bid $0.10 on a keyword, you will pay $0.10 for each click-through, regardless of other Advertiser bids. See “Auto Bidding” for further explanation.
Flash
Macromedia’s vector-based graphics file format which is used to display interactive animations on a Webpage. This form of Rich Media technology is available via a plug-in.
Floating Ads
Online ad or ads that appear within the main browser window, on top of the Webpage’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.
Fold
An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the Webpage appears. One does not have to scroll down (or sideways) to see it. Since screen resolution can affect what is immediately viewable, it is beneficial to know whether the site’s audience tends to set its resolution at 640 x 480 pixels or at 800 x 600 (or higher).
Follow Friday
A trend on Twitter each Friday, denoted by the hashtag #FF. People on Twitter use this to recommend following a certain user.
Footer
An area at the end of an Email message or newsletter that contains information that doesn’t change from one edition to the next, such as contact information, the deploying company’s postal address or the Email address the recipient used to subscribe to mailings. Some software programs can be set to place this information automatically.
Forums
Threaded topical discussions where users can leave comments and react to other people’s comments. Unlike pure blog comments, the topic of a particular forum thread is often started by another forum user, not a Publisher.
Forward (Send To A Friend)
The process in which Email recipients send a message on to other people they know. Forwarding can be done through the recipient’s own Email client or by giving the recipient a link to click, which brings up a registration page at the sender’s site, in which the recipient is asked to give his/her name and Email address, the name/Email address of the person they want to forward to, and (optionally) a brief Email message explaining the reason for the forwarding. The sender can supply the wording or allow the recipient to write his/her own message. (See Viral Marketing).
FPS (Frames Per Second)
FPS is an acronym for Frames Per Second, the metric used to indicate the frame rate of animated or Video creative content.
Frame Rate
The rate at which Video frames or animated images display as the Video or animated file executes, measured as the number of frames per second (fps).
Frequency
The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage (cap) the extent of ad frequency.
Frequency Capping
The ability to set a limit on the number of times an Advertiser exposes a user to their advertising within a fixed time period.
Frequency Distribution
The number or proportion of individuals in an advertising target audience that have the opportunity-to-see an Online ad or advertising schedule  a certain number of times. E.g. 1 time, 2 times, 3 times, 3 or more times (3+) etc.
Friends
The network of people an individual user is connected with on Facebook.
From
Whatever appears in the Email recipient’s inbox as your visible “from” name. Chosen by the sender. May be a personal name, a brand name, an Email address, a blank space, or alpha-numeric nonesense. Note – this is not the actual “from” contained in the header (see below) and may be different than the Email reply address.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used to exchange and manipulate files over a TCP computer network, such as the Internet. An FTP client may connect to an FTP server to manipulate files on that server.
Full-service Provider
An Email vendor that also provides strategic consulting and creative support, in addition to deploying messages.
Gamification
Applying gaming principles to non-games. For example, Nike encourages its consumers to track their runs and share that data to Facebook. This action earns points for the consumer, which they can redeem for Nike product.
Geo-targeting
Geo-targeting allows Advertisers to specify where ads will or will not be shown, based on the visitor’s or searcher’s location, enabling more localized and personalized results.
Goodbye Message
An Email message sent automatically to a list member who unsubscribes, acknowledging the request. Should include an option to re-subscribe in case the unsubscribe was requested accidentally.
GPU
GPU is an acronym for Graphics Processing Unit. In modern computers, the GPU handles graphical processing, decreasing the processing burden handled by the CPU.
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A way of enabling users to interact with the computer, using visual icons and a mouse rather than a typed command-like prompt/interpreter.
Hard Bounce
Email Message sent to an invalid, closed or nonexistent Email account.
Hashtag
Use of the hash or pound symbol # used in front of a tag or keyword. Often used on Twitter to help people find discussion on the same topic.
Header
Routing and program data at the start of an Email message, including the sender’s name and Email address, originating Email server IP address, recipient IP address and any transfers in the process.
Hit
When users access a Website, their computer sends a request to the site’s server to begin downloading a page. Each element of a requested page (including graphics, text, interactive items) is recorded by the site’s Web server log file as a “hit.” If a page containing two graphics is accessed by a user, those hits will be recorded once for the page itself and once for each of the graphics. Webmasters use hits to measure their servers’ workload. Because page designs and visit patterns vary from site to site, the number of hits bears no relationship to the number of pages downloaded, and is therefore a poor guide for traffic measurement. The proper measures for Website performance include unique users, pageviews, time spent Online, etc.
Home Page
The page designated as the main point of entry of a Website (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes you and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.
Host
Also called server; a computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network. (See Server).
Hot Spot
A “hot spot” is an area of an ad unit, which when rolled-over/rolled-on by the user’s cursor, such rollover triggers an event (i.e. expand ad). The trigger event should not occur unless the user’s cursor rests in the hotspot zone for at least 1-second. Hotspots should never initiate audio (audio should only be initiated by a click). When hotspots are used, the trigger event should stop immediately upon the user’s cursor leaving the hotspot zone (i.e. ad collapses), and the ad unit should return to its original state.
House List
The list of Email addresses an organization develops on its own.
HTML Message
Email message which contains any type of formatting other than text. This may be as simple as programming that sets the text in a specific font (bold, italics, Courier 10 point, etc.). It also includes any graphic images, logos and colors.
HTML Page
A HyperText Markup Language document stored in a directory on a Web server and/or created dynamically at the time of the request for the purpose of satisfying that request. In addition to text, an HTML page may include graphics, Video, audio, and other files.
Hybrid Pricing
Pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. (See CPM, Performance pricing model).
Hyperlink
HTML programming which redirects the user to a new URL when the individual clicks on hypertext.
Hypertext
Text displayed on a computer with references hyperlinks to other text that the reader can immediately follow, usually by a mouse click or key-press sequence. This can occur within a document residing on the user’s hard drive or anywhere in the World Wide Web. Apart from running text, hypertext may contain tables, images and other presentational devices. Other means of interaction may also be present, e.g. a bubble with text may appear when the mouse hovers somewhere, a Video clip may be started and stopped, or a form may be filled out and submitted.
Image Map
A GIF or JPEG image with more than one linking hyperlink. Each hyperlink or hot spot can lead to a different destination page.
Impression
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to opportunity to see the page by the user. If an ad is displayed 1,000 times, that is considered to be 1,000 impressions.
In-banner Video
A Video delivered as part of (inside of) the display ad creative for a given placement rather than initiating the use of a Video player.
Inbound Link
An inbound link is a hyperlink to a particular Webpage from an outside site, bringing traffic to that Webpage. Inbound links are an important element that most Search engine algorithms use to measure the popularity of a Webpage.
Influencers
A person or group of people who have a strong influential presence on social media and who are often targeted by marketers as social media brand advocates.
Initial Dimension
The original width and height (in pixels) (( E.g. 728×90) of an expanding ad, typically matched to the placement dimensions. Expanding ads are designed to expand to a dimension larger than the initial dimension ( E.g. 728×360).
Initial File Load
The size of the creative file(s) for an ad, measured in KB or MB, that load along with (inline with) the Webpage files that load when a user first initiates a page load. The initial file load size of an ad is limited in order to preserve the page load performance and thus the user’s web browsing experience.
Instant Messaging (IM)
A technology that enables real-time, text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or some form of internal network/intranet. The synchronicity of the communication is what separates chat and instant messaging from e-mail. In certain cases Instant Messaging involves additional features, i.e. to see the other party by using Webcams, to talk directly for free over the Internet, or to send messages to people not currently logged on (offline messages). (See Real Time).
Interactive Advertising
Online (including Display (banners), Sponsorship, Email, Search, Video, Classified, Social Media Marketing, Etc.); Mobile (SMS, MMS, Applications, Content, Etc.), and Gaming.
Internal Traffic
Company-internal traffic should be disclosed on a disaggregated basis. If company-internal traffic is material to reported Audience Reach Measurements and does not represent exposure to content or advertising that is qualitatively similar to non-internal users, it should be removed from reported counts. Additionally, all robotic or non-human audience activity that arises from internal sources (for example, IT personnel performing testing of content should be removed).
Interstitial Ads
Ads that appear between two content pages. Also known as transition ads, intermercial ads, splash pages and Flash pages. (See Splash Page).
Invalid Clicks
Invalid Clicks can arise from numerous situations based on internal quality guidelines of either or both the Publisher or Publisher’s Agent. Additionally, the Advertiser or Advertiser’s Agent can make assessments of Click validity and bring these assessments to the attention of the Publisher or Publisher’s Agent. In general, Click activity determined to be invalid should be removed from counts to arrive at valid click activity. Invalid Clicks arising from suspected “click fraud” are a sub-component of Invalid Clicks. (See Click Fraud).
Invisible Web
A term that refers to the vast amount of information on the Web that isn’t indexed by Search engines.
IP Address
Internet protocol numerical address assigned to each computer on the network so that its location and activities can be distinguished from other computers. The format is ##.##.##.## with each number ranging from 0 through 255 (e.g. 125.45.87.204)
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
An organization that provides access to the Internet. An ISP can be a commercial provider, a corporate computer network, a school, college, university, or the government.
Jump Page Ad
Microsite which is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the Advertiser’s site or the Publisher’s site.
Junk E-mail Folder
A folder within an e-mail client or on an E-mail Service Provider server that stores e-mail messages that are identified, either by the user or by an automated spam filter, as undesired or undesirable.
Keyword
A word or phrase entered into a Search engine in an effort to get the Search engine to return matching and relevant results. The keyword can also be purchased by Advertisers in order to direct the hyperlink opportunity to the Advertiser’s site or to serve an ad related to the user’s search. For example, possible keywords for a site selling apples would be “apple”, “red”. apple” and “green apple’’.
Keyword Search Revenues
Fees that Advertisers pay to retrieve the hyperlink opportunity to the Advertiser’s site or to serve an ad related to the user’s search.
Kilobyte (KB)
A multiple of the unit ‘byte’ for digital information, used to quantify computer memory or storage capacity equal to a 1,000 bytes (or technically, 2^10 = 1,024 bytes). For the purposes of this document, this measure relates to creative file size. (See definition for Byte)
KPI
Key Performance Indicator. Used to determine benchmarks for social media strategy success or failure.
Landing Page
A Webpage viewed after clicking on a link within an Email or an ad. Also may be called a microsite, splash page, bounce page, or click page.
Link
An electronic connection between two Websites. Also called “hotlink” or “hyperlink.”
Link Bait
Editorial content, often sensational in nature, posted on a Webpage and submitted to Social Media sites in hopes of building inbound links from other sites.
Link Building
The process of getting quality Websites to link to your Websites, in order to improve Search engine rankings. Link building techniques can include buying links, reciprocal linking or entering barter arrangements.
Linkrot
What happens when links go bad over time, either because a Website has shut down or a site has stopped supporting a unique landing page provided in an Email promotion.
List
The list of Email addresses to which a message is sent. Can be either a house list or a third-party list.
List Fatigue
A condition producing diminishing returns from a mailing list whose members are sent too many offers, or too many of the same offers, in too short a period of time.
List Hygiene
The act of maintaining a list so that hard bounces and unsubscribed names are removed from mailings. Some list owners use an Email change-of-address service to update old or abandoned Email addresses as part of this process.
List Management
How an Email list is set up, administered and maintained. The list manager has daily responsibility over list operation, including processing subscribes and unsubscribes, bounce management, list hygiene, etc. The list manager can be the same as the database manager but is not always the same person as the list owner. (See list owner).
List Owner
The organization or individual who has gathered a list of Email addresses. Ownership does not necessarily imply “with permission”.
List Rental
The process in which a Publisher or Advertiser pays a list owner to send its messages to that (third party) list. Usually involves the list owner sending the message’s on the Advertiser’s behalf.
List Sale
The actual purchase of a mailing list along with the rights to mail to it directly. Permission can only be “sold” if the subsequent mailings continue to match the frequency, brand name, content, and “from” of the past owner’s mailings.
Log File
A file that records transactions that have occurred on the Web server; i.e. a history of page requests. Some of the types of data which are collected are: date/time stamp, URL served, IP address of requestor, status code of request, user agent string, previous URL of requestor, etc.
Login
The identification or name used to access a computer, network or site.
Look-alikes / Audience Modelling
Potential customers modeled after an Advertiser’s 1st party data (usually data from their customers who visit and make purchases from their websites). Attributes of the Advertiser’s customers are matched against a larger audience, creating a pool of highly targetable and ‘pre-qualified’ users. Some companies refer to this also as ‘pre-targeting’.
Mail Bomb
An orchestrated attempt to shut down a mail server by sending more messages than it can handle in a short period of time.
Makegoods
Additional ad impressions which are negotiated in order to compensate an Advertiser for the shortfall of Online ads delivered versus the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.
Mashup
Merging of two or more pieces of content together to create a new piece of media.
Megabyte (MB)
A multiple of the unit ‘byte’ for digital information, used to quantify computer memory or storage capacity equal to 1,000 kilobytes (or technically, 2^20 = 1,048,576 bytes). For the purposes of this document, this measure relates to creative file size. (See definition for Byte)
Meme
A piece of media, often a photo and copy together, that inspire copycat media which often go viral.
Micro Blogging
Publishing very brief, spontaneous posts to a public Website, usually via a mobile device or wirelessly connected laptop (e.g. on Twitter).
Microsites
Multi-page ads accessed via click-through from initial ad. User stays on the Publisher’s Website, but has access to more information from the Advertiser than a standard ad format allows.
Mid-roll
Form of Online Video ad placement where the ad is played during a break in the middle of the content Video. (See Pre-roll and Post-roll).
Minimum Bid
The lowest amount of money that a Pay Per Click Search Engine allows Advertisers to bid for a certain keyword. This amount is usually $0.01, $0.05, $0.10, $0.20, or $0.50.
Moderation
The act of selecting media files for publication or not, based on rules and guidelines set out by the Publisher. Content can be pre-moderated, meaning they’re reviewed before they’re published, or post-moderated, meaning the media is published immediately after a user posts it, but a moderator may take the media down later if they find it violates their rules. Moderation can be done by people or by software.
Mouse-off
The act of a user moving the cursor away (off) from the hot spot of an ad. Mouse-off by a user may trigger an event, such as collapsing an expanding panel or stopping any animation in progress.
Mouse-over
The process by which a user places his/her mouse over a media object, without clicking. The mouse may need to remain still for a specified amount of time to initiate some actions like an expanding ad.
Multi-part MIME
Also known (confusingly) as an “Email sniffer”, a Message format which includes both an HTML and a text-only version in the same message. Most (but not all) Email clients receiving messages in this format will automatically display the version the user’s system is set to show. Systems that can’t show HTML should show the text version instead.
Netiquette
A term that is used to describe the informal rules of conduct (“do’s and don’ts”) of Online behavior.
Newsgroup
An electronic bulletin board devoted to talking about a specific topic and open to everybody. Only a handful of newsgroups permit the posting of advertising.
Non-Remnant Inventory
Inventory sold directly by a Publisher to an advertiser. Remnant inventory is usually sold by a third party.
Nth Name
The act of segmenting an Email list for a test in which names are pulled from the main list for the test cell by number — such as every 5th name on the list. (See also A/B split).
OBA
Acronym for Online Behavioral Advertising. The collection of data from a particular computer or device regarding Web viewing behaviors over time and across non-affiliate Websites for the purpose of using such data to predict user preferences or interests to deliver advertising to that computer or device based on the preferences or interests inferred from such Web viewing behaviors. Online Behavioral Advertising does not include the activities of First Parties, Ad Delivery or Ad Reporting, or contextual advertising (i.e. advertising based on the content of the Web page being visited, a consumer’s current visit to a Web page, or a search query).
OBA Self-Regulatory Program (AdChoices)
Developed by leading industry associations to apply consumer-friendly standards to Online Behavioral Advertising across the Internet. The Principles of this program addresses public education and industry accountability when it comes to the collection and use of online behavioural advertising data. In Canada, IAB Canada administers the Canadian version of the OBA programme. To read more about the program, see: http://www.youradchoices.ca.
Open Rate
The number of HTML message recipients who opened your Email, usually as a percentage of the total number of Emails sent. The open rate is considered a key metric for judging an Email campaign’s success, but it has several problems. The rate indicates only the number of Emails opened from the total amount sent, not just those that were actually delivered. Opens also can’t be calculated on text Emails. (See Preview Pane).
Opt-in
Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services. (See Permission Marketing).
Opt-in E-mail
Lists of Internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial e-mail about topics of interest.
Opt-out
When a company states that it plans to market its products and services to an individual unless the individual asks to be removed from the company’s mailing list.
Organic Search Results
Unpaid Search engine listings, as distinct from paid Search engine placements, or pay per click ads.
Overlay
An ad unit that displays over the Webpage content briefly when initiated.
Page
An Online document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other Online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated. It may be made up of multiple frames or screens, but should contain a designated primary object which, when loaded, is counted as the entire page.
Page Impression
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user. (See www.iab.net for ad campaign measurement guidelines).
Page Request
The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user’s interaction with a Website.
Pageview
A page view (PV) or page impression is a request to load a single page of an Internet site. On the Web, a page request would result from a Web surfer clicking on a link on another HTML page pointing to the page in question.
Paid Inclusion
A service that guarantees (for a fee) that a Website’s pages will be indexed. The fee guarantees inclusion within the Search engine’s results (and also that the Search engine will spider the pages often) for a set period of time, usually one year. Paid inclusion guarantees that a Website will be included in Search results, but does not guarantee top placement within the Search results.
Pass-along
An Email recipient who got your message via forwarding from a subscriber. Also known as viral.
Password
A group of letters and/or numbers which allow a unique user access to a secured Website and/or a secure area of a Website.
Pause
A Video, animation or audio control that enables users to stop the Video, animation, or audio from playing until the user is ready to resume play.
Pay Per Click Search Engine (PPCSE)
A type of Search engine in which search results are determined by Advertiser bids. Generally speaking, the Advertiser that bids the highest amount on a specific keyword will appear as the No. 1 search result for that specific keyword.
Pay-per-Click (PPC/CPC))
Also called Cost per Click (CPC). A performance-based Online advertising pricing model in which Advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies on a cost per click (CPC) basis, according to the number of visitors that click on an Online ad or e-mail message. PPC advertising is different than “traditional” Online advertising, where Advertisers pay according to how many times their ad is displayed (see CPM). With Pay Per Click Advertising, an ad can be displayed many times, but the Advertiser only pays when a Web user actually clicks on the ad. (See Cost per click – CPC).
Pay-per-Lead (PPL/CPL)
A performance-based advertising pricing model in which Advertisers pay for each “sales lead” generated. For example, an Advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form. (See CPL).
Pay-per-Sale (PPS/CPS)
A performance-based advertising pricing model in which Advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad. (See CPS).
PDF Files (Portable Document Format)
A translation format developed by Adobe used primarily for distributing files across a network, or on a Website. Files with a .pdf extension have been created in another application and then translated into .pdf files so they can be viewed by anyone, regardless of platform.
Peel Over
An ad, when expanded, which mimics the behavior of a paper top corner being peeled.
Performance Pricing Model
An advertising model in which Advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of Online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. (See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS).
Permission
The implicit approval given when a person actively requests to have their own Email address added to a list.
Permission Marketing
When an individual has given a company permission to market its products and services to the individual. (See opt-in).
Persistent Cookie
A cookie which remains on the user’s hard drive until the user erases it.
Personalization
A targeting method in which an Email message appears to have been created only for a single recipient. Personalization techniques include adding the recipient’s name in the subject line or message body, or the message offer reflects a purchasing, link clicking, or transaction history.
Phishing
A form of identity theft in which a scammer uses an authentic-looking Email to trick recipients into giving out sensitive personal information, such as credit-card or bank account numbers, Social Security numbers and other data.
Pixel
The smallest unit of measure for graphical elements in digital imagery and used as the standard unit of measure for ad creative (i.e. 350×200 pixels). Pixels may also represent x/y coordinates relevant to a given space, such as the browser window, an application workspace or the user’s computer screen. (See also “Tracking Pixel”)
Plain Text
Text in an Email message that includes no formatting code.
Platform
The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs, e.g., PC, Macintosh, Unix.
Play
A Video, animation or audio control that enables a user to initiate (or avoid initiating) the Video, animation or audio of an ad.
Plug-in
A program application that can easily be installed and used as part of a Web browser. Once installed, plug-in applications are recognized by the browser and their function integrated into the main HTML file being presented.
Podcast
A podcast is a series of digital media files, usually digital, audio, or Video, that is made available for download via Web syndication.
Polite File Load
Withholding a portion of the total ad creative file size (besides any initial file load size) from loading on a page until Publisher content has loaded.
Pop-under Ad
Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window.  Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.
Pop-up Ad
Online ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on-screen.
Pop-up Transitional
Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on line-speed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.
Portal
A Website that often serves as a starting point for a Web user’s session. It typically provides services such as search, directory of Websites, news, weather, e-mail, homepage space, stock quotes, sports news, entertainment, telephone directory information, area maps, and chat or message boards.
Portrait
An IAB Rising Star ad unit template that uses up to three interactive modules chosen (by the ad designer) from a variety of modular application options in a 350×1050 pixel space. See: http://www.iab.net/risingstars
Post Click
Actions performed by a user on an Advertiser site after being redirected there from clicking an ad. This is a technique used to evaluate the influence of the ad on customer behavior on the Advertiser Website.  
Post-roll
Form of Online Video ad placement where the advertisement is played after the content Video plays. (See Pre-roll and Mid-roll).
PPC
(See Pay per Click).
PPC Management
A service that helps pay per click Advertisers manage their various PPC advertising campaigns across multiple PPC search engines.
Pre-roll
Form of Online Video ad placement where the advertisement is played before the content Video plays. (See Post-roll and Mid-roll).
Preferences
Options Email users can set to determine how and which messages they want to receive from you. The more preferences a user can specify, the more likely you’ll send relevant Email.
Preview Pane
The window in an Email client that allows the user to scan message content without actually clicking on the message. (See Open rate).
Privacy Policy
A clear description of how your company uses the Email addresses and other information it gathers via opt-in requests for newsletters, company information, or third-party offers or other functions. If you rent, sell or exchange your list to anyone outside your company, or if you add Email addresses to opt-out messages, you should state so in the privacy policy.
Private Exchange
A virtual marketplace operated by sellers to represent their high value/premium inventory, providing programmatic access to select buyers (via a DSP) who agree to transact based on pre-negotiated terms (e.g. flight dates, floor prices, auction types, budgets, etc.). True private exchanges offer access to inventory that is not otherwise available within the open market.
Profiling
The practice of tracking information about consumers’ interests by monitoring their movements Online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URL’s, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click-stream.
Progress Bar
A Video or animation control that shows users the progression of the Video or animation in relation to its total duration.
Progressive Load Video
A distribution method for serving Video files in which the Video file downloads progressively into the cache of a user’s computer, much the same way images and other content elements are downloaded.
Publisher
An organization, entity or individual that supplies Web content or search content and places advertising for consumption /viewing by users.
Pushdown
An IAB Rising Stars ad unit template designed for rich interaction in a space similar to, but larger than, an expanding leaderboard, with initial dimensions of 970×90 pixels and expanded dimensions of 970×415 pixels.
Qualified Hits
Hits to a Web server that delivers information to a user. Qualified hits exclude error messages, redirects and requests by computer programs (as opposed to end users).
Quality Score
A score assigned by search engines that is calculated by measuring an ad’s click-through rate, analyzing the relevance of the landing page, and other factors like historical keyword performance to determine the quality of a site, rewarding those of higher quality with top placement and lower bid requirements. All of the major search engines now use some form of quality score in their search ad algorithm.
Query
An Online request for information, usually to a search engine.
Queue
Where an Email message goes after you send it but before the list owner approves it or before the list server gets around to sending it. Some list software allows you to queue a message and then set a time to send it automatically, either during a quiet period on the server or at a time when human approval isn’t available.
Rate Card
The list of advertising prices and products and packages offered by a media company.
Re-direct
When used in reference to Online advertising, one server assigning an ad-serving or ad-targeting function to another server, often operated by a third company. For instance, a Web Publisher’s ad management server might re-direct to a third-party hired by an Advertiser to distribute its ads to target customers; and then another re-direct to a “Rich Media” provider might also occur if streaming Video were involved before the ad is finally delivered to the consumer. In some cases, the process of re-directs can produce latency. (See ad serving).
Reach
1) The foundation for the initiation of Unique Cookie or Unique User counting is a measurable incidence of audience activity, unduplicated for that cookie or that user, respectively, and related to the applicable Web-site, property or application, such as a “widget”, during the reporting period. This activity should be based on the “client-initiated” concept of counting, whereby audience activity (the request or transaction from the user) originates from a user’s browser (or browser equivalent) – i.e., the “client” – and can consist of graphics or content requests, ad requests or search transactions. Activity that is associated with or arising from the use of a standalone executable application should only be counted towards Online audience reach if the application is being used to access content or messaging on the Internet and it is attributable to direct human interaction.
Real Time
Events that happen in real time are happening virtually at that particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time since it is immediate. (See Instant Messaging).
Real Time Bidding (RTB)
A data-driven programmatic buying model allowing Advertisers or their Agencies to bid on digital media (display, video, mobile, social, etc.) in real-time, at the impression level.
Real Time Search
Search engine results which include media that is being generated on social networks at the point in time that the search was conducted.
Referral Fees
Fees paid by Advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.
Referral Link
The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the Online user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL. Also known as source of a visit.
Registration
The process where someone not only opts in to your Email program or subscribes to gain access to a Website’s content, but provides some additional information, such as name, address, demographic data or other relevant information, usually by using a Web form.
Remnant Inventory
Inventory that and Publisher is unable to sell directly which is turned over to a third-party and sold at a discounted rate. (Also see non-remnant inventory)
Repeat Visitor
Unique visitor who has accessed a Website more than once over a specific time period.
Reply-to
The Email address that receives messages sent from users who click “reply” in their Email clients. Can differ from the “from” address which can be an automated or unmonitored Email address used only to send messages to a distribution list. “Reply-to” should always be a monitored address.
Reputation Monitoring
Analysis of social media conversations on a particular topic or brand which reveals the overall sentiment that users are expressing about that topic or brand.
Retargeting
Re-messaging various messages to a collective pool of participants based on the pools the buyer/client creates; usually involves collecting data by pixelating the Advertiser’s website.
Retraction
An event programmed into an expandable ad that causes the ad to be reduced to its original dimensions (i.e. the expanded portion of the ad retracts).
Return On Investment (ROI)
The percentage of profit that results from a marketing or advertising campaign. A positive ROI occurs when the amount of money received exceeds total campaign-related expenditures. In general and in terms of PPC advertising, the formula would be net profit divided by investment: (Revenue – Expenses) / Expenses.
Return Visits
The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.
Retweet
Originating in Twitter, a retweet or “RT” indicates a verbatim sharing of a social media update.
Revenue Sharing
The business agreement by which a site divides its revenue with an ad network.
Rich Media
Advertisements with which users can interact (as opposed to solely animation) in a Webpage format. These advertisements can be used either singularly or in combination with various technologies including Video, sound, or Flash, and with programming languages such as Java, Javascript, and DHTML. They can be deployed via standard Web and wireless applications including e-mail, static (e.g. html) and dynamic (e.g. asp) Webpages, banners, buttons, transitionals and various over-the-page units such as floating ads, page take-overs, and tear-backs.
Rising Star Display Ad Units
IAB US invited companies and individuals to submit ad templates designed to drive brand equity. Six templates were chosen to be validated by the market. Rising Star Display Ad Units are designed to be the only ad on a page. Their file load limits are larger than for other ads, so not only would a Rising Star Ad Unit overshadow any other ads on the page but they would also compromise the performance of the page should other ads be allowed to load simultaneously. IAB Canada supports and wishes to promote these new ad units. See: http://www.iab.net/risingstars
ROI
(See Return On Investment)
Rollover
The willful pause of the user’s cursor on the target portion of the creative (the “hot spot”), such pause lasting at least one second in duration, before an action may be initiated by the ad (i.e. trigger an expand event, etc.). This one-second pause/delay requirement prevents unwanted, user-initiated actions and false reporting of user engagement.
RON (Run-Of-Network)
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventory. The Advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.
ROS (Run-Of-Site)
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the Advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.
Royalty-Free Music
Music which is licensed under a Creative Commons License and is available for free or at a small cost to be used on the  Web.
RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
A family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works, such as Blog entries, news headlines, audio, and Video—in a standardized format.An RSS document (which is called a “feed”, “Web feed”,or “channel”) includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship. Web feeds benefit Publishers by letting them syndicate content automatically. They benefit readers who want to subscribe to timely updates from favored Websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites into one place.
RSS Reader
Client software or Web application which aggregates RSS feeds in a single desk-top or mobile-device based location, for the user to read all subscribed to feeds at one time. The user subscribes to a feed by entering into the reader the feed’s “URL” (uniform resource locator) or by clicking an RSS icon in a browser that initiates the subscription process. The RSS reader checks the user’s subscribed feeds regularly for new work, downloads any updates that it finds, and provides a user interface to monitor and read the feeds. (See RSS).
RTB – Bidder
Connects to one or more “pipes” and evaluates every impression that’s announced. The real-time bidder is responsible for making the best inventory acquisition decisions possible, on behalf of the Advertiser.
RTB – Pipe (API)
Provides a server-side connection into an inventory source and pushes impressions, in real time, to eligible buyers. It announces impressions as they are made available to buy.
Sample
A subset of a universe whose properties are studied to gain information about that universe.
Search Engine
A program that helps Web users find information on the Internet. The method for finding this information is usually done by maintaining an index of Web resources that can be queried for the keywords or concepts entered by the user.
Search Engine Marketing (SEM)
A form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote Websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages through the use of paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
The process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a Website from search engines via “natural” (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results. Typically, the earlier a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. Optimizing a Website primarily involves editing its content and HTML coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. 
Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs)
The page searchers see after they’ve entered their query into the search box. This page lists several Webpages related to the searcher’s query, sorted by relevance. Increasingly, search engines are returning blended search results, which include images, Videos, and results from specialty databases on their SERPs.
Second Price Auction
The winner of the bid pays the price of the 2nd highest bidder + 1 cent (also known as a Vickery auction).
Seed Emails
Email addresses placed on a list (sometimes secretly) to determine what messages are sent to the list and/or to track delivery rate and/or visible appearance of delivered messages. Seeds may also be placed on Websites and elsewhere on the Internet to track spammers’ harvesting activities.
Segment
The ability to slice a list into specific pieces determined by various attributes, such as open history or name source.
Selective Unsubscribe
An unsubscribe mechanism that allows a consumer to selectively determine which Email newsletters they wish to continue receiving while discontinuing the sending of others.
Sell-through Rate
The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered in an ad network.
SEM
(See Search Engine Marketing).
Sender Id
The informal name for a new anti-spam program combining two existing protocols: Sender Policy Framework and CallerID. SenderID authenticates Email senders and blocks Email forgeries and faked addresses.
Sender Policy Framework (SPF)
A protocol used to eliminate Email forgeries. A line of code called an SPF record is placed in a sender’s Domain Name Server information. The incoming mail server can verify a sender by reading the SPF record before allowing a message through.
Sentiment
A measure to determine users’ emotional relationship to a social media post or social media presence. Defined further as positive, negative or neutral.
SEO
(See Search Engine Optimization).
Server
A computer which distributes files which are shared across a LAN, WAN or the Internet. Also known as a “host”. (See Host).
Session
1) Sometimes also called a “visit”. A single continuous set of activity attributable to a cookied browser or user (if registration-based or a panel participant) resulting in one or more pulled text and/or graphics downloads from a site. Inactivity rules that result in the termination of a visit (as disclosed by the measurement organization) should include the time thresholds triggering the inactivity rules, as well as the amount of Time Spent to be credited. (See Visit).
Session Cookies
Cookies which are loaded into a computer’s RAM, and only work during that browser session. When the browser exits, these cookies are erased. They are “temporary cookies”, and no cookie is written to a user’s hard drive. (See cookie).
Set-Top Box
An electronic device that sits on top of one’s TV set and allows it to connect to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.
Shop Bot
An Online price comparison service (also known as shopping comparison or price engine) allows individuals to see different lists of prices for specific products. Most price comparison services do not sell products themselves, but source prices from retailers from whom users can buy.
Short Code
Short codes, also known as short numbers, are special telephone numbers, significantly shorter than full telephone numbers, which can also be used to address SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones.
Sidekick
An IAB Rising Stars ad unit template initially displayed as one of three standard ad unit dimensions, but upon user initiation, “pushes” publisher content to the left to display a canvas of up to 970×550 pixels full of rich interaction. See: http://www.iab.net/risingstars
Signature
A line or two of information found in the closing of an Email, usually following the sender’s name. Signatures can include advertising information, such as a company name, product, brand message or marketing call to action (subscribe to a company newsletter with the Email subscribe address or Web registration form, or visit a Website with the URL listed).
Site Structure
Also referred to as site architecture. The organisation of content within a site within contextually relevant groups that is usually reflected in the layout of the sites navigation.  A well-organized Website is one that makes it easy and intuitive for visitors to find what they want. The easier it is to use, the longer users will stay at the site, and the more they’ll see of it. Good Website structure also makes it easy for you to grow your site logically.
Skins
Customized and interchangeable sets of graphics, which allow Internet users to continually change the look of their desktops or browsers, without changing their settings or functionality. Skins are a type of marketing tool.
Skyscraper
A tall, thin Online ad unit. One of three standard creative units defined in IAB Canada guidelines. Two sizes of skyscrapers are recommended: 160 X 600 in-page, expandable (Rich Media) to 320 x 600. (See Canadian Universal Online Ad Package-CUAP).
Slider
An IAB Rising Star Ad Unit template designed with an overlay “slider” (90 pixels high) that rests at the bottom of a Publisher’s page and when prompted by user interaction, slides page content to the left for a canvas of 970×550 pixels full of rich interaction possibilities for user engagement. See: http://www.iab.net/risingstars
Slotting Fee
A fee charged to Advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.
Smart Phone
A mobile phone offering complete operating system software providing a standardized interface and platform for application developers, and features like e-mail, Internet and e-book reader capabilities, with a built-in full keyboard. Advanced 3G devices are qquipped with more powerful processors, abundant memory and large screens.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, the most common protocol for sending Email messages between Email servers.
Sniffer
Software that detects capabilities of the user’s browser looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug-ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth.
Social Action
An action taken by a user on a social network, such as liking a Facebook fan page, sharing a piece of content to a social network or retweeting a tweet by another Twitter user.
Social Bookmarking
A means for social media users to broadly share web URLs and content under a username, typically found via a tag (see tag).
Social Game
An interactive game which is either played with other people in a social space and/or highly encourages sharing of game content into social spaces. E.g. Farmville.
Social Media
Content, such as photos, videos or stories, that are shared.
Social Media Platform
Technologies which enable social networks, and tying services into those social networks. E.g. Facebook’s Open Graph, Twitter’s API.
Social Media Sites
Social Media sites are characterized by the sharing of information between users within a defined network. They include social networking sites like LinkedIn, Facebook, mySpace and Twitter or social bookmarking sites like Del.icio.us, social news sites like Digg or Reddit, and other sites that are centered on user interaction. Social Media allow the initiation of conversation by either party. The size of the network is a reflection of the active participation of the audience, as consumer-generated media represents that vast majority of all content. For consumers the true value of a network is measured by the frequency of engagement of the participants. For marketers, endorsement by consumers in the form of friending/following/subscribing validates their efforts and activates a viral distribution of their brand across channels.
Social Network
A service created to facilitate the publication, sharing and discussion of social media. E.g. Facebook, Twitter, or Pinterest.
Soft Bounce
Email sent to an active (live) Email address but which is turned away before being delivered. Often, the problem is temporary — the server is down or the recipient’s mailbox is over quota. The Email might be held at the recipient’s server and delivered later, or the sender’s Email program may attempt to deliver it again. Soft-bounce reports are not always accurate because they don’t report all soft bounces or the actual reason for the bounce.
Solo Mailing
A one-time broadcast to an Email list, separate from regular newsletters or promotions, and often including a message from an outside Advertiser or a special promotion from the list owner.
SoLoMo
Stands for, “social, local, mobile.” Describes the trend that consumers are increasingly using local services on mobile devices, which have socially enabled services.
Spam
The popular name for unsolicited commercial Email. However, some Email recipients define spam as any Email they no longer want to receive, even if it comes from a mailing list they joined voluntarily.
Spam Filter
Software built into e-mail gateways as well as e-mail client applications designed to identify and remove unsolicited commercial messages from incoming e-mail before the end user sees them
Spider
A search engine spider is a program that crawls the Web, visiting Webpages to collect information to add to or update a search engine’s index. The major search engines on the Web all have such a program, which is also known as a “crawler” or a “bot.”
Splash Page
A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a Website; usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Also known as an interstitial. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions. (See Interstitial Ad).
Squeeze Page
A Website page that asks you to perform one action before it takes you to the main Webpage with more options.  This one action could be signing up for a newsletter, taking a short survey, or choosing between two or more languages.  The purpose of a squeeze page is to get users to focus on one thing before you give them options.
Staging Environment
The staging environment lets you move Website assets within and across different environments. For example, you can move a new Webpage or a marketing campaign from a test environment to a production environment. In an enterprise deployment, you can define staging projects to move content from the development environment to the integration/test environment, from there to the staging environment, and from there to the production environment.
Standard Ad Units
A set of ad specifications for standard image or animated in-page ad units that establish a framework for advertising inventory and Webpage design.
Status
Short content a user posts on social media. Also called Status Update.
Stickiness
A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.
Streaming
1) Technology that permits continuous audio and Video delivered to a computer from a remote Website; 2) an Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and Video files. The host or source compresses, then “streams” small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received.
Submission Lead Time
The number of business days (non-weekend/non-holiday days) prior to a campaign going live in which a Publisher needs to validate/troubleshoot Advertiser submitted creative(s) for a campaign.
SWF
Acronym for Shockwave Flash. “.swf” is the file naming extension used for animated files complied using Adobe Flash software.
Syndicated Measurement Organization
Any 3rd Party organization that measures and reports audience activity on the Internet across entities in a consistent manner. Traditionally, these organizations have primarily used a sample or panel of users (or households) who are recruited and tracked using software meters or other automated techniques. Due to the use of meters, Web-site or property user identification techniques such as cookies are not necessary. A strength of these organizations is the ability to attribute audience activity to users and the known demography of users in a panel or some other user-attributed data-source. Some syndicated measurement organizations may also use a hybrid approach (for instance, measurements that result from linking census-based data with data from a sampling approach that supplies demography).
Tag
A short word  or words used to describe a piece of content. E.g. a photo of the movie poster for Moneyball may be tagged with words like, “movie”, “baseball”, “Brad Pitt”.
Tagging
The process of placing a pixel on an Advertiser’s website or search landing pages to “tag” users as having visited those pages so that they can be eligible for subsequent targeting/messaging.
Teleseminar
A conference that takes place in a conference call setting.  Telephone workshop.  A bridge line is set up and can host from two callers to thousands worldwide.
Textual Ad Impressions
The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable “auto load images” in their graphical browser. When they arrive at a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the Advertiser’s message in text format in place of the graphical ad. Additionally, if a user has a text-only browser, only textual ads are delivered and recorded as textual ad impressions.
Thank-you Page
Webpage that appears after user has submitted an order or a form Online. May be a receipt.
Third-party Ad Server
Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of Online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.
Throttling
The practice of regulating how many Email messages a broadcaster sends to one ISP or mail server at a time. Some ISPs bounce Email if too many messages are received at a time from one sending address. Also refers to traffic management activities implemented by an ISP to control or even reduce traffic flow, delaying some packets in order to meet certain criteria. ‘Throttling” and “traffic shaping” are used interchangeably and are assumed to include all such traffic management activities.
Tinyurl
An Online tool that converts a long Website address into a shorter more manageable Website address.  When a long Website address is sent in an Email it can become broken and therefore invalid due to formatting of the Email itself.  Using www.tinyurl.com to shorten the Website address fixes this problem.
Title Tag
An HTML meta tag with text describing a specific Webpage. The title tag should contain strategic keywords for the page, since many search engines pay special attention to the title text when indexing pages. The title tag should also make sense to humans, since it is usually the text link to the page displayed in search engine results.
Total Visits
Total number of browsers accessing a Website within a specific time period. Total visits should filter robotic activity, but can include visits from repeat visitors. (See Visit).
Tracking Pixel (Tags, Beacons)
A 1×1 pixel-sized transparent image that provides information about an ad’s placement. In many cases, a tracking pixel is used to notify an ad tracking system that either an ad has been served (or not served, in some cases) or that a specific Webpage has been accessed. 1×1 pixel tags on many websites that can track web surfers’ location and activities online, such as a registration or conversion. Some are powerful enough to know what a user types on a particular site. Also known as: beacon, web beacon, action tag, redirect, etc.
Trading Desk
Online ad traders plugged into a DSP or ad exchange.
Traffic Conversion
Your Website conversion rate tells you how many of your visitors are being ‘converted’ from visitors into clients, customers, leads, or subscribers.  Specific communication tools are used to convert leads to subscribers and buyers. (See Conversion, Conversion Rate).
Transactional Email
Also known as transactive Email. A creative format where the recipient can enter a transaction in the body of the Email itself without clicking to a Webpage first. Transactions may be answering a survey, or purchasing something.
Transitional Ad
An ad that is displayed between Webpages. In other words, the user sees an advertisement as he/she navigates between page ‘a’ and page ‘b.’ Also known as an interstitial. (See Interstitial).
Trending
A piece of content or a topic that a large number of people are talking about, in real time, on social networks right now. Trending topics are often seen on Twitter, but people use this term on other social networks as well– there is even an online show called, “What’s Trending” which discusses what has been trending that day.
Troll
A term for users who post off-topic or offensive topics on a social media platform, often in violation of social media guidelines/agreements.
Tweeps
Mashup of the words, “Twitter” and “people” to describe people using Twitter.
Tweet
Verb used to describe a message that is up to 140 characters long, that a user posts through their Twitter account.
Unduplicated Audience
The number of unique individuals exposed to a specified domain, page or ad in a specified time period. (See Unique User, Unique Visitor).
Unique Browser
An identified and unduplicated Cookied Browser that accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. This identification procedure should use an attribution method, generally a cookie identifier, to identify the browser and establish the unduplicated nature of the audience activity during the reporting period. Included here should be an appropriate method, fully disclosed, to account for the potentially inflationary impact of cookie deletion among certain of the cookied browsers that access Internet content.
Unique Cookie
A count of unique identifiers that represents unduplicated instances of Internet activity (generally visits) to Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. Unique cookies do not generally represent unduplicated browsers, users or people accessing Internet content or advertising, due to several complexities surrounding the use of cookies and the accurate linkage of this identifier information to the browsers or users involved. Measurement of unique cookies for primary audience reach metrics by Publishers, ad servers, and those who rely on the identification of cookied browsers to measure audiences is subject to numerous challenges, notably cookie deletion. (See Cookie deletion).
Unique Device
An unduplicated computing device that is used to access Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. A count of unduplicated devices necessarily accounts for multiple browser usage on an individual computer or other computing device. It may also contribute to an understanding of the number of Unique Users, if it informs the number of multiple users who access Internet content that are attributable to a single computer or computing device.
Unique Reference Number
A unique number assigned to a list member, usually by the Email-broadcast software, and used to track member behavior (clicks, subscribes, unsubscribe) or to identify the member to track Email delivery.
Unique User/visitor
An identified and unduplicated individual Internet user who accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. Census-based Publishers and Ad-servers will generally need to rely on algorithms (data models) to estimate the number of users attributable to the counts of Unique Cookies they develop. This is distinct from Syndicated Measurement Organizations that rely solely on panel tracking to derive counts of Audience Reach without the use of cookies. If the measurements include both pulled content and accessed pushed content, they should be referred to as Unique Users. If no pushed content is included, the measurement can be referred to as Unique Visitors. (For additional details, see ‘Audience Reach Measurement Guidelines’ at www.iab.net).
Universal Search
Also known as blended, or federated search results, universal search pulls data from multiple databases to display on the same page. Results can include images, Videos, and results from specialty databases like maps and local information, product information, or news stories.
Upload
To send data from a computer to a network. An example of uploading data is sending e-mail.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The unique identifying address of any particular page on the Web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually HTTP), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name) and format (usually HTML or CGI).
User
An anonymous person who uses a Web browser to access Internet Web content.
User Registration
Information contributed by an individual which usually includes characteristics such as the person’s age, gender, postal code and often much more. A site’s registration system is usually based on an ID code or password to allow the site to determine the number of unique visitors and to track a visitor’s behavior within that site.
User-Initiation
The willful act of a user to engage with an ad. Users may interact by clicking on the ad, and/or rolling over an ad (or a portion of an ad). When a user engages the ad using a rollover action, the user’s cursor must rest on the hotspot for at least one second before any action may be initiated in the ad. See the definition for rollover for more information.
VAST

The IAB Video Ad-Serving Template (VAST) enables a seamless exchange of Video ads across multiple Video player platforms by using a common format for Video ad responses. It enables Publishers to accept ads from multiple Advertisers, and allows Advertisers to use the same ad across multiple Publishers. VAST ads can be delivered to any VAST-compliant player without compatibility concerns. See: http://www.iab.net/vast
Video (or Digital Video)
In Online advertising, the digital recording of a physical event or animated files that have been transcribed into a digital Video format.
Video E-mail
An Email message that includes a Video file, either inserted into the message body, accessible through a hotlink to a Website or accompanying it in an attachment (latter least desirable because many ISPs block executable attachments to avoid viruses).
Video Messaging
A communications tool that facilities person to person, or group video based chat that let people hear one another, or sometimes both hear and see one another. E.g. Google+ Hangouts, Skype.
Viral
Used to describe media that becomes popular through widespread sharing.
Viral Marketing
Advertising and/or marketing techniques that “spread” like a virus by getting passed on from consumer to consumer and market to market.
Virtual Worlds
Three-dimensional computerized environments that multiple users can explore and interact with via avatars or characters representing themselves. Online games like World of Warcraft take place in virtual worlds, but the term is often used to define services that are open-ended and geared for socializing, as opposed to the more goal-oriented environments of Online games.
Virus
A program or computer code that affects or interferes with a computer’s operating system and gets spread to other computers accidentally or on purpose through Email messages, downloads, infected CDs or network messages. (See worm).
Visit
A site Visit (or “session”) begins with a user-initiated “event,” or a request for content that originates from the user’s browser. Certain types of content may more likely to receive these single page visits, for instance, by accessing the site via a search engine link.
Visit Duration
When a site Visit (or “session”) begins with a request for content, this event “starts the clock” on the Time Spent measure. Each event within the session extends the Visit, and adds to the Time Spent by the user. Accounting for these one-event, “single page visits,” is important to the overall calculation of an average Time Spent measure for a site. Inactivity rules that result in the termination of a visit (as disclosed by the measurement organization) should include the time thresholds triggering the inactivity rules, as well as the amount of Time Spent to be credited. (See Visit).
Visitor
Any browser that accesses a Website within a specific time period.
Volume
A control that enables users to adjust the audio output of ad creative. Volume controls should always allow adjustment down to zero (0) output.
VPAID
The Video Ad API Definition (VPAID) standardizes communication between Video players and in-stream Video ads. Working in concert with VAST, VPAID allows Video players and in-stream Video ads to remain in sync. VPAID offers Advertisers more control over rich interactive Video behavior. See:http://www.iab.net/vpaid
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular mobile telephones, PDAs and others can be used for Internet-based access.
WAP Device
Any device (e.g., mobile phone, PDA, or simulator) that allows access to wireless content.
Web 2.0
A term that refers to a supposed second generation of Internet-based services on the World Wide Web, especially the movement away from static Webpages. These usually include tools that let people collaborate and share information Online, such as social networking sites, wikis, communication tools, and folksonomies.
Web Applications
Web applications are software programs designed to work on one or more platforms. The term “Application” is most commonly used to describe a platform-specific program, such as a Facebook or MySpace application, which can tap into the sharing functionality or data available on a particular social network. This data includes such things as a user’s friends or location. Applications work only on the platform for which they are designed. (See Widget).
Web Beacon
A line of code which is used by a Website or third party ad server to track a user’s activity, such as a registration or conversion. A Web beacon is often invisible because it is only 1 x 1 pixel in size with no color. Also known as Web bug, 1 by 1 GIF, invisible GIF and tracker GIF. (aka  tracking pixel)
Web Bug
A 1 pixel-by-1 pixel image tag added to an HTMLmessage and used to track open rates by Email address. Opening the message, either in the preview pane or by clicking on it, activates the bug and sends a signal to the Website, where special software tracks and records the signal as an open. (See Web beacon).
Web Syndication
A form of syndication in which Website material is made available to multiple other sites. Most commonly, Web syndication refers to making Web feeds available from a site in order to provide other people with a summary of the Website’s recently added content (for example, the latest news or forum posts).
Webcasting
Real-time or pre-recorded delivery of a live event’s audio, Video, or animation over the Internet.
Webmail (also Web Mail)
Any of several Web-based Email clients where clients have to go to a Website to access or download Email instead of using a desktop application. Some examples are Gmail, Yahoo! Mail and Hotmail.
Website
The virtual location (domain) for an organization’s or individual’s presence on the World Wide Web.
Welcome Message
Message sent automatically to new list members as soon as their Email addresses are added successfully.
Whitelist
Advance-authorized list of Email addresses, held by an ISP, subscriber or other Email service provider, which allows Email messages to be delivered regardless of spam filters.
Whitelist (RTB Specific)
A list of web sites that an Advertiser will permit their ads to be placed on. Websites not on this list will not be used to display ads for the Advertiser.
Widget
The key difference between a widget and a Web application is portability. Widgets are applications that can function on any site that accepts external content, including social networks, Blog platforms, start pages (i.e. MyYahoo), desktop platforms or personal Webpages. Widgets can be built to function differently on each platform, delivering varying degrees of integration with a social network, from accessing and using social data to not interacting with the platform at all. Social applications encourage connectivity, self-expression or collaboration, often through games, productivity tools or interactive content. (See Web Applications).
Wiki
A wiki is a collection of Webpages designed to enable anyone with access to contribute or modify content, using a simplified markup language. Wikis are often used to create collaborative Websites and to power community Websites. The collaborative encyclopedia Wikipedia is one of the best-known wikis.
Win Rate
The number of impressions won over the number of impressions bid.
Worm
A piece of malicious code delivered via an executable attachment in Email or over a computer network and which spreads to other computers by automatically sending itself to every Email address on a recipient’s contact list or address book. (See virus).
XML
Stands for eXtensible Markup Language.  It allows Website developers to manage and manipulate data and display it dynamically.
Yield Optimization
Technique employed by Publishers to determine what their ad impressions are worth and how to manage the flow of inventory to make the most money.
Z-Index
Enumerated layers of elements and content on a Publisher’s Webpage. Consideration of the Z-element in page content design such as navigation, imagery, and ads is important for providing a seamless experience when page content overlaps. (i.e. an expanding ad with a Z-index that is less than navigational elements may give the appearance that page navigational elements are showing through the expanded portions of the ad.)